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Current Undergraduate

Course Information

Disclaimer: The curriculum is still subject to minor revisions. Please check back regularly to read the most updated curriculum.

Students admitted in AY10/11 or earlier will follow the PAPXXX course codes. Students admitted in AY11/12 or later will follow the new PHXXXX course codes.

PAP courses
Course Code and Title AU Information
PH1104 - Mechanics 3 AU

This course introduces fundamental concepts of mechanics.

  1. Fundamental quantities of nature. Systems in equilibrium, in motion with constant acceleration and non-constant acceleration. Frames of reference and Galilean Relativity.
  2. Linear Motion - Newton’s three laws of motion; forces, linear momentum, impulse, work done, kinetic energy, potential energy, torque and pressure; conservation laws; collisions; systems with variable masses; rockets. Force fields - gravitation; concept of field; conservative fields; Gauss’ law; superposition.
  3. Rotational motion - Orbits & Kepler’s laws; angular speed and momentum; moment of inertia; rotational dynamics; parallel and perpendicular axes theorems; kinetic energy; gyroscope

Prerequisite: Physics and Mathematics at A or H2 level, or equivalents
Not available to: Students who have taken/are taking PH1011, PH1012, PH1101, PH114S, PH1801, CY1308

PH1105 - Optics, Vibrations and Waves  3 AU

This course studies the behaviour and properties of optical and particle waves.

  1. Geometrical Optics – reflection, refraction and dispersion; lensmaker’s equation; real and virtual images; cameras, telescope and microscope.
  2. Oscillations - Simple Harmonic Motion; relative phases; pendulums; damped and driven oscillations; phasor diagrams.
  3. Waves and Sound – Wave equation, characteristics of waves; wave attenuation; phase, group velocity; Huygen’s principle, superposition and interference; Sound waves and characteristics; beats; standing waves; Doppler effect.
  4. Wave Optics – electromagnetic waves; interference, diffraction; Young’s slits and diffraction grating; Limits of resolution; Interference in thin films; Scattering of light; Michelson’s interferometer; Spectrometer, X-ray diffraction, Bragg’s equation; Polarization; Brewster angle.

Prerequisite: Physics and Mathematics at A or H2 level, or equivalentsNot available to: Students who have taken/are taking PH1103, PAP113, EE1002

PH1106 - Electricity and Magnetism  3 AU

This course introduces basic notions of Electric, Magnetic fields and circuits.

  1. Electric fields - Coulomb’s law, electric field & potential; Gauss’ law; capacitors and capacitance; Current of electricity; Ohm’s Law; Microscopic model of electrical conduction. Kirchoff’s laws; RC circuits.
  2. Magnetic fields – Biot-Savart’s Law and Ampere’s law; Lorentz force; Hall effect; mass spectrometer; JJ Thompson’s experiment; magnetic flux; Gauss’s Law of magnetism; Faraday’s and Lenz’s law; transformers; inductors and inductance.
  3. Electrical circuits - voltage, current and resistance; Oscillations in circuits - LC circuits and relative phases; complex current and voltage; complex impedance; LCR circuits and electrical resonance. High pass filters and low pass filters.
  4. Electromagnetic Waves – properties of electromagnetic waves; Poynting vector.

Prerequisite: Physics and Mathematics at A or H2 level, or equivalents
Not available to: Students who have taken/are taking PH1011, PH1012, PH1102, PAP112, PH1802, PAP182, EE1002, PHYS1B, CY1302, CY1306

PH1107 - Relativity and Quantum Physics  3 AU

This course introduces fundamental concepts of special relativity, quantum physics and some basic applications.

  1. Special Relativity - Michelson-Morley experiment; Einstein’s postulates; time and causality; Lorentz transformation; world-lines & space-time diagrams; Doppler effect; relativistic momentum and energy; mass energy equivalence.
  2. Quantum Physics - Planck’s postulate; Photoelectric effect; photons; Compton scattering; wave particle duality; electron diffraction; de Broglie waves; Bohr’s atom and its limitations; Schrödinger’s Equation; Born’s interpretation of wave functions; Uncertainty Principle; Infinite square well; Tunneling; Schrödinger’s analysis of hydrogen atom; Wave functions of Hydrogen Atom; Atomic structure; Electron spin; Quantum numbers; Pauli’s Exclusion principle; Many-electron atoms; Photomultipliers; scanning electron microscope; scanning tunneling microscope.
  3. Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity – radioactive decay; binding energy; activities and half- lives; fission and fusion; radiation doses.

Prerequisite: Physics and Mathematics at A or H2 level, or equivalents
Not available to: Students who have taken/are taking PH1101, PAP111, CY1307

PH1198 - Physics Laboratory Ia  2 AU

This course will train students in basic experimental physics that include topics in mechanics, basic optics and thermal physics. The laboratory sessions are designed to provide an active learning experience where key concepts can be better appreciated. Students will also learn about data acquisition, error analysis, error distribution and fitting procedures.

Prerequisite: Physics at A or H2 level or equivalent

PH1199 - Physics Laboratory Ib  2 AU

This course will train students in basic experimental physics that include topics in electricity & magnetism, circuits, optics and wave phenomena. The laboratory sessions are designed to provide an active learning experience where key concepts can be better appreciated. Students will also learn about data acquisition, error analysis, error distribution and fitting procedures.

Prerequisite: Physics at A or H2 level or equivalent

PH2101 - Quantum Mechanics I  

4 AU (for students took in AY13/14 or earlier)

3 AU (for students taking in AY14/15 or later)

This course introduces the basic idea of quantization in the physical world.

  1. Schrodinger wave equation: Born’s interpretation of wave functions; expectation values; time-independent Schrodinger equation; required properties of eigenfunctions; energy quantization in Schrodinger theory; quantum superposition.
  2. Solutions of time-independent Schrodinger equation: Zero potential; step potential; barrier potential; quantum mechanical tunneling (radioactive alpha-decay, ammonia molecule, tunnel diode, scanning tunneling microscope;); square well potential; simple harmonic oscillator potential.
  3. One-electron atoms: Central potential, development of the Schrodinger equation in 3-dimensions; separation of variables; eigenvalues, quantum numbers and degeneracy; eigenfunctions; probability densities; orbital angular momentum; eigenvalue equations.
  4. Magnetic dipole moments & spin: Orbital magnetic dipole moments; Stern-Gerlach experiment and electron spin; spin-orbit interaction; total angular momentum.
  5. Indistinguishable particles: Spin and Anti-symmetric wave functions; Bosons and Fermions.
  6. Formalism of Quantum Mechanics and Matrix Mechanics: Postulates of quantum mechanics; Dirac notation; Matrix representation of operators.

Prerequisite: (MH1801 and PH1107) OR (MH1801 and CY1307) OR (MH1802 & MH1803 & PH1107) OR (CY1307, CY1601 & CY1602)
Not available to: Students who have taken/are taking CY1303

PH2102 - Electromagnetism  4 AU

This course introduces key concepts in electromagnetism.

  1. Electric dipole moment, polarization and displacement, multipole expansion
  2. Laplace's and Poisson's equation; uniqueness theorem; method of images, electrostatic energy
  3. Magnetic dipole moment, magnetic field and flux, magnetic scalar and vector potentials; magnetization and magnetic media, permeability and susceptibility; properties of B and H; boundary conditions
  4. Equation of continuity, Maxwell equations and relativistic invariance
  5. Electromagnetic wave equation, electromagnetic spectrum, magnetic and electric energy densities, Poynting flux, momentum flux, radiation pressure, polarization

Prerequisite: (MH1801 & MH2800 & PH1106) OR (MH1802 & MH1803 & MH2802 & PH1106) OR (CY1601 & CY1602 & CY1308)

PH2103 - Thermal Physics 4 AU

This course introduces the laws and key concepts of thermodynamics.

  1. Thermodynamic equilibrium, functions of state, equations of state; Zeroth law; perfect gases and absolute zero
  2. First law of thermodynamics; work, heat, and internal energy; adiabatic, reversible and irreversible changes; heat engines, efficiency, and Carnot cycles
  3. Clausius' theorem and Second law of thermodynamics
  4. Fundamental equation of thermodynamics; phase changes and latent heat
  5. Enthalpy, Helmholtz free energy and Gibb's energy; Maxwell relations; reciprocity theorem
  6. Third law of thermodynamics
  7. Kinetic theory - Maxwell distribution of velocities; pressure and effusion; mean free path; thermal conductivity and viscosity
  8. Heat transport - conduction, radiation, and convection as transport mechanisms; heat flux and heat diffusion equation; steady-state and initial-value problems; sinusoidally varying surface temperatures

Prerequisite: (MH2800 & PH1104) OR (MH1803 & MH2802 & PH1104) OR (CY1601 & CY1602 & CY1308)

PH2104 - Analytical Mechanics  4 AU

This course introduces fundamental concepts of analytical mechanics.

  1. Newtonian Mechanics: Motion with non-constant acceleration; Potential energy and conservative force; Conservative forces in three dimensions; Small oscillations; Coupled oscillators; Central forces; Orbits and Trajectories; Scattering. Collision in center of mass coordinates.
  2. Rotating Systems: Rotating coordinate systems; Coriolis forces and Centrifugal forces; Focault Pendulum; Rigid body rotation; inertia tensor, principal axes of inertia, precession.
  3. Lagrangian mechanics: calculus of variations; action integral; Hamilton’s principle of least action; generalised coordinates; Hamilton’s equations; Canonical transformations; Liouville’s theorem; Symmetries and conservation laws.

Prerequisite: (MH2800 & PH1104) OR (MH1803 & MH2802 & PH1104) OR (CY1601 & CY1602 & CY1308)
Not available to: Students who have taken/are taking PH2201, PAP221, MA1001

PH2198 - Physics Laboratory IIa  2 AU This course will train students in experimental physics covering a wide variety of topics: Quantum physics, physical optics and lasers, and electronics.

Prerequisite: PH1198
PH2199 - Physics Laboratory IIb  2 AU  This course will train students in experimental physics covering a wide variety of topics: Electromagnetism, thermal physics, solid state and materials physics.

Prerequisite: PH1199
PH2301 - Physical Optics  3 AU

This course aims to establish the basic principles of physical optics which form the foundation for many modern sciences and technologies.

  1. Wave properties, refraction and dispersion, interference, Michelson interferometer, Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction, resolution limit, Fourier transformation, holography
  2. Polarization, birefringence and wave plates, Fabry-Perot etalons, optical coatings, zone plates

Prerequisite: PH1103 or PH1105

PH2601 - Introduction to Lasers  3 AU

This course serves as an introduction to lasers and their working principles.
* Quantum transitions in atoms, stimulated emission and amplification, rate equations, saturation, feedback, coherent optical oscillation, laser resonators, and various type of lasers

Prerequisite: PH1103 or PH1105
PH3101 - Quantum Mechanics II  4 AU

This course introduces the framework and basic tenets of quantum mechanics.

  1. Wave mechanics - probability interpretation of interference; wavefunctions, wave packets and momentum representation
  2. Schrodinger equation - operators; eigenfunctions and eigenvalues; solutions for free particle and barrier
  3. Bound states - zero-point energy; orthogonality and normalisation; expansion in basis states; expectation values; harmonic oscillator; 3D box and separation of variables
  4. Operator methods - Dirac notation; postulates of quantum mechanics; observables and operators; probability of measurement outcomes; orthogonality and completeness; degeneracy; discrete and continuous spectra; operator commutations and observables; generalised uncertainty relations; ladder operators; time-dependence; Ehrenfest's theorem; time evolution operator
  5. Angular momentum - operators, eigenvalues and eigenstates; parity, rotational invariance and conservation; hydrogen atom; quantum numbers
  6. Spin and identical particles - Stern-Gerlach experiment; symmetry and multiparticle states; fermions and bosons; exchange operator; Pauli exclusion; helium atom

Prerequisite: PH2101, MH2801

PH3102 - Condensed Matter Physics I
(only for students admitted in 2013 and after)

 4 AU

This course introduces the structure of solids and the quantization of atomic and electronic motion in a periodic solid..

  1. Crystal symmetry - lattice, basis, unit cell, Miller indices, lattice planes and spacing; reciprocal lattice and Brillouin zones. Bragg and Laue diffraction, structure factor, atomic form factor; neutron and x-ray diffraction; powder and single crystal diffraction.
  2. Normal mode dispersion for linear atomic chains; acoustic and optic modes; Born von Karman boundary conditions; density of states; lattice quantization and phonons; Einstein and Debye models of heat capacity.
  3. Free electron theory, density of states, Fermi energy, Fermi surface.
  4. Metals - conductivity and heat capacity; density of states at Fermi level; nearly free electron model and band gaps. Bloch theorem, Kronig-Penny model.
  5. Distinction between metals, semiconductors and insulators. Aspects of Condensed Matter Physics.

Prerequisite: PH1105, PH2101, PH2103

PH3199 - Physics Laboratory IIIa  2 AU

This course provides advanced training in experimental physics covering a wide variety of topics: Quantum physics, electrodynamics, atomic physics and spectroscopy, solid state physics, fluid mechanics, semiconductor physics, photonics, biophysics and thin film growth.

Prerequisite: PH2198, PH2199
PH3201 - Statistical Mechanics  4 AU

This course introduces the postulates and key ideas in statistical mechanics, with applications to classical and quantal gases.

  1. Basic postulates, macrostates and microstates, distinguishable and indistinguishable particles, distribution functions
  2. Temperature, entropy and the probability of system configuration occurring, Boltzmann relation, canonical ensemble and partition function
  3. Gibb's entropy; Third law of thermodynamics; information theory; irreversible processes and arrow of time
  4. Density of states; heat capacity in black body radiation
  5. Ideal classical gas, Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, rotational and vibrational heat
  6. Free electron gas, Fermi energy and distribution function, Pauli paramagnetism
  7. Electronic contribution to heat capacity
  8. Phonons as normal modes, contribution to heat capacity, Debye approximation; phonon gas, thermal conductivity of insulators
  9. Mean description of phase transitions - Weiss model of ferromagnetism, order-disorder transition

Prerequisite: PH3101

PH3399 - Physics Laboratory IIIb  2 AU

This course provides advanced training in experimental physics covering a wide variety of topics: Quantum physics, electrodynamics, atomic physics and spectroscopy, solid state physics, fluid mechanics, semiconductor physics, photonics, biophysics and thin film growth.

Prerequisite: PH2198, PH2199
PH3401 - Atomic Physics  4 AU

This course discusses the origins of atomic spectra and shows the application of quantum mechanics in describing the interaction between electron and nuclei in atoms.

  1. Hydrogen atom - central potential approximation, radial wavefunction, quantum numbers, energy levels and degeneracy; electron spin and total angular momentum; spin-orbit coupling and fine structure; Zeeman splitting
  2. Helium atom - Coulomb repulsion and exchange; singlet-triplet splitting
  3. Electronic configuration and periodic table; alkali metals; residual electrostatic interaction; LS-coupling scheme; Hund's rules; hyperfine structure and isotope shift
  4. Selection rules for electric dipole interaction
  5. Zeeman and Stark effects
  6. Inner shell transitions and x-ray spectra
  7. Modern experiments in atomic physics

Prerequisite: PH3101

PH3403 - Cosmology
  3 AU

This is a first course in cosmology which covers various fundamental aspects of standard cosmology and background tools to understand some active research topics in this area. The topics to be covered include inflation theory, structure formation, big bang nucleosynthesis, application of Boltzmann equation to understand various matter production, cosmic microwave background and primordial gravitational waves. We will also discuss some aspects of geometry of the universe including the Robertson-Walker metrics and Friedmann equations. The course will conclude via touching on currently open problems in cosmology such as dark matter, dark energy and primordial gravitational waves.

Prerequisite: PH1107, PH2101, PH2103

PH3404 - Physics of Classical and Quantum Information
  3 AU

The 21st Century has seen a string of profound discoveries that interface physics, information theory and computer science. This course will introduce undergraduate students these exciting ideas. On completion of the course, students will appreciate how information theory has led to new understanding in physics, and how the discovery of new physics – such as quantum mechanics - has led to complete new ways of processing and transferring information.

Topics include:
  1. Computation and its physical consequences: Turing machines, the physical Church-Turing thesis, Halting problem, computational complexity, emergence.
  2. Introduction to information theory: Quantifying information, Shannon entropy, correlations and mutual information.
  3. Thermodynamics of information: Maxwell’s Demons, Szilard Engines, Landaur’s Erasure, energetic limits of computation.
  4. Introduction to quantum Information: Quantum bits, quantum gates, quantum non-locality, quantum entanglement
  5. Quantum technologies (time permitting): A sampling of iconic quantum technologies, e.g. Quantum bomb detection, quantum teleportation.

Prerequisite: PH2101, MH1402

PH3405 - Superconductivity, Superfluidity and Bose-Einstein Condensates
  3 AU

This course covers three types of macroscopic quantum phenomena: superconductivity, superfluidity and atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC). We start with superfluid helium-4 and introduce macroscopic wave function, momentum distribution, flow quantization, rotating superflulid and vortices, quasi-particle excitations (phonons and rotons), and the two-fluid model by Tisza and Landau.

  1. For superconductivity we first review the Drude theory of conduction in normal metals, and basics in superconductivity such as zero-resistivity, the Meissner effect, perfect diamagnetism and so on, then study Type I and Type II superconductors and London equation. Ginzburg-Landau theory will be studied in details, including thermodynamics of phase transition, order parameter, G-L theory in a magnetic field, gauge symmetry and spontaneous symmetry breaking, Abrikosov flux lattice and etc. We also cover macroscopic coherent states, field operators, off-diagonal long-range order (ODLRO), the Josephson effect and its application in the Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID), plus an introduction to the BCS theory.
  2. Superfluid helium-3 and unconventional superconductivity will be addressed as well.
  3. For BEC we will study Bose-Einstein statistics, BEC in (ultra)-cold atomic gases, the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and its applications in rotating BECs.

Prerequisite: PH2101

PH3502 - Chaotic Dynamical Systems 4 AU

This course introduces the ideas of determinism and randomness in the physical world.

  1. Introduction to phase plane, critical points and characterization (hyperbolic/elliptic) - free and damped oscillators, prey-predator models
  2. Simple extensions to three-dimensional phase space and beyond, e.g. rotation of rigid bodis, the Lorenz system
  3. Integrable and non-integrable systems, Poincar¨¦ return maps
  4. Discrete dynamics - 1D and 2D maps; fixed points and stability; period doubling - shift map, logistic map
  5. Breakdown of order and chaos; sensitivity to initial conditions ("butterfly effect") and Lyapunov exponents; limit to predictability; strange attractors and fractal dimension - Kepler problem, H¨¦non-Heiles system
  6. Stable and unstable manifolds, homoclinic and heteroclinic tangle, lobes and turnstile transport, particle motion in 2D incompressible fluid

Prerequisite: PH2104

PH3501 - Fluid Mechanics  4 AU

This course introduces the laws governing fluid motion.

  1. Pascal's theorem, Bernoulli equation, Euler's equation, Navier-Stokes equation, vorticity and divergence
  2. Compressible and incompressible fluids, flow around objects, potential flow; viscosity, Reynolds number; laminar flow and turbulence; Kolmogorov scaling
  3. Sound waves, shock fronts, Rankine-Hugoniot relations
  4. Hydrostatic balance, shallow-water equations, surface waves; conservation of potential vorticity

Prerequisite: PH2104

PH3601 - Fabrication of Micro- and Nanoelectronic Devices

4 AU

This course discusses the basic principles underlying the fabrication of micro- and nanoelectronic devices and material processing techniques.

  1. Semiconductor based device fabrication - ion implantation, diffusion, oxidation, epitaxy, thin film deposition, material and device characterization, lithography, etching and cleaning
  2. Conventional and non-conventional fabrication techniques of magnetic, organic and bioMEMS devices, and its characterization techniques will be discussed

Prerequisite: PH2102

PH3602 - Photonics  4 AU

This course introduces key concepts in optical, optoelectronics and optical communication technologies.

  1. Waveguides optics, fiber optics, crystal optics, interaction between photons and semiconductors, semiconductor light sources and detectors, photovoltaic devices, liquid crystal optics, and flat panel displays

Prerequisite: PH2101, PH2301

PH3603 - Biophysics  3 AU

This course serves as an introduction to "How physics approaches living matter". It aims to provide a framework for understanding biophysics and physical models of biological systems. You will build foundational knowledge in key topics of molecular biophysics and structural biology. Through this course, you will be introduced to the working principles of common biophysical methods used to investigate the structure and dynamics of biomolecules as well as novel methods for manipulation and analysis in biophysics. The course consists of the following topics:

  1. Introduction to Biophysics
  2. Chemical bonds
  3. Structure of biomolecules
  4. Structure calculation and computer simulation
  5. Thermodynamics and kinetics of molecular interactions
  6. Single-molecule biophysics
  7. Physics and Medicine

Prerequisite: PH2103

PH4401 - Quantum Mechanics III  4 AU

This course discusses quantum interactions between matter and electromagnetic fields.

  1. Time-independent perturbation theory - non-degenerate and degenerate. Variational method, ground state energy and eigenfunction. Born-Oppenheimer approximation.
  2. Hamiltonian of a charged particle in an electromagnetic field, vector potential, phase; time-dependent perturbation theory, Fermi's golden rule.
  3. Transitions - two state system, Rabi oscillations, Larmor precession, radiative transitions; electric dipole approximation, magnetic resonance; Aharanov-Bohm effect.
  4. Zeeman and Landau. Scattering and Born approximation; quantization of the electromagnetic field.
  5. Relativistic quantum mechanics - Klein-Gordon equation, Dirac equation, spin, gyromagnetic ratio and antiparticles.
  6. Quantum field theory - generalization from particles to fields, symmetry and conservation laws, Noether's theorem, Lagrangian formulation.
  7. Quantum information - qubits, entanglement and teleportation; quantum computing

Prerequisite: PH3101

PH4402 - Condensed Matter Physics II  4 AU

This course introduces advanced concepts in solid state physics with particular attention to theoretical approaches.

  1. Theories and models; approaches to many-body problem; collective phenomena
  2. Structure and bonding - order and disordered; types of bonding and structure; electrons in periodic potential, Bloch theorem; tight-binding; 1D chain and polymer; band structure of real materials; optical transition and photoemission
  3. Interactions - effective medium approximation for electron-electron interaction; Hartree-Fock theory; exchange and correlation energy; electron fluid and screening; exclusion principle and quasiparticles
  4. Transport and scattering - crystal momentum; neutron scattering; electron-phonon scattering; optical conductivity; Drude theory, plasmons; transport in electric and magnetic fields; quantization of orbits, cyclotron resonance; de Haas-van Alphen effect; Fermi surfaces; magnetoresistance oscillation; quantum Hall effect
  5. Semiconductors - thermal equilibrium of quasiparticles; field effect transistor; pn junctions, LED; exciton, heterostrutures, quantum well, semiconductor laser
  6. Magnetism - origin moments and interactions, ferromagnetism; itinerant magnetism, Stoner model; strongly interacting systems, Mott insulator

Prerequisite: PH3201 and PH3102

PH4403 - Surfaces and Interfaces

4 AU

This course discusses the key concepts in surface and interface science with special focus on electronic structure.

  1. Surface energy and thermodynamics; electronic structure; phase transition; elementary excitations; physisorption and chemisorption; energy transfer
  2. Schottky barrier and band offsets in semiconductors; band engineering
  3. Analytical techniques include scanning tunneling microscopy; electron diffraction methods; photoemission, ballistic electron emission microscopy

Prerequisite: PH3102

PH4404 - Nanoscale Physics  3 AU

This course introduces the physical and transport properties in nanoscale systems.

  1. Electron gas in 2D and multilayer systems
  2. Quantum transport in 1D; magnetotunneling; quantum capacitance and conductance
  3. Quantum dots and artificial atoms; eigenenergies and eigenstates; single particle conductance; Coulomb blockade; Kondo effect; Aharanov-Bohm effect

Prerequisite: PH3101, PH3102

PH4408 - Nuclear Physics

 3AU

This course provides a basic understanding of the structure of nuclei and their properties.

  1. Properties of nuclei: radii, masses, abundances, binding energies, spins and EM moments
  2. Nuclear structure: deuteron, nucleon-nucleon scattering in terms of an exchange force; nuclear models: the semi-empirical mass formula, the Fermi gas model, the shell model, liquid drop model with vibrational and rotational excitations, collective structure
  3. Energy balances and spin/parity selection rules of alpha, beta and gamma decay processes
  4. Measurement of nuclear lifetimes, applications of nuclear physics including fusion and fission processes
  5. Nuclear reactors and nuclear power; neutron difussion and moderation; radiation protection and radiation shielding; safety & the environment.

Prerequisite: PH3101

PH4410 - Econophysics

 3AU

This course introduces statistical physics-inspired approaches to economics and finance.

  1. Review basic concepts in probability and statistics.
  2. Low- and high-frequency data in economics and finance.
  3. Gaussian and fat-tailed return distributions.
  4. Autocorrelation, memory, and nonstationarity in time series data.
  5. Cross correlations in financial markets.
  6. Random matrix theory.
  7. Correlation filtering and minimal spanning trees.
  8. Time series clustering.
  9. Agent-based models of financial markets.
  10. Stylized facts from simulation results.

Prerequisite: PH3201 or MH2500

PH4409 - Quantum Electronics

 4 AU

This course aims to provide students with a solid foundation of photonics and optical technology.

  1. Classical linear and nonlinear optics, photons and quantum optics, statistical optics, semiclassical and quantum models on interaction between light and matter, lasers, generation of short laser pulses.
Prerequisite: PH3101, PH3602

PH4411 - Introduction to Experimental Particle Physics

 3 AU

This course is a survey of particle physics for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students.

  1. It explores the common roots and tools of the nuclear (medium energy) and particle (high energy) fields. The main objective is to develop an understanding of the Standard Model of quarks, leptons and the fundamental interactions of the universe together with the associated experimental techniques.
  2. Specific topics include an introduction to the fundamental interactions and their mediators, quarks and leptons, symmetries and tests of conservation laws, and indications of physics beyond the Standard Model.
  3. The course in particular includes experimental techniques in particle physics, including the physics principles of particle accelerators and particle detectors.
    • The lectures on particle accelerators will include selected topics in the types of accelerators, transverse & longitudinal dynamics, the lattice, magnets, RF and plasma acceleration, as well as electron dynamics & synchrotron radiation.
    • The particle detector lectures will include a presentation of the main properties of particle interactions with matter, which form the basis of all particle detectors. The various types of detectors used in particle physics experiments are discussed in detail, including their sensitivity, detector response, energy, space and time resolution response functions, detector efficiency and dead time, covering devices for position and momentum measurements, particle identification systems, calorimeters and multipurpose systems, as well as the overall design of a particle physics experiment.
  4. Current and future experimental challenges will be discussed for modern particle physics experiments, including the data volume and computing challenge, the online collision selection, and the data analyses - taking the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments at CERN as an example.
Prerequisite: Division Approval

PH4414 - Introduction to Spintronics

 3 AU

This course will introduce magnetics and spintronics technologies which are useful in hard disk drives and the emerging magnetic random access. The course consists of three parts of almost equal lengths.

  1. The first part provides the fundamentals of magnetism. In this part, the origin of magnetism through concepts such as atomic magnetic moment, exchange interaction will be described. Various types of magnetic materials and their properties will be explained. In addition, the origin of hysteresis loop will be explained. This part will help the student to pick up research in any field of magnetism.
  2. The second part discusses the basics and recent developments of magnetic recording. The major components of magnetic recording such as reading and storing information will be described. A detailed discussion on the recording media will be provided. The first and second part will equip a student to be suitable for hard disk industry.
  3. The third part discusses the basics and recent developments of magnetic random access memory. In this part, concepts such magnetoresistance, giant magnetoresistance, tunneling magnetoresistance are described first. Various types of MRAM devices are discussed later. The third part will end with an overview of emerging concepts in MRAM. The first and third part of the course will equip a student for jobs in the memory industry, in particular on jobs related to MRAM.
Prerequisite: PH2102 & PH3102 or equivalent

PH4418 - Physics in the Industry

 4 AU

Topics include

  • Industry 1: Physics in the Electronics Industry
  • Industry 2: Physics in the Optics Industry
  • Industry 3: Soft Condensed Matter Physics in the Industry
  • Industry 4: Physics in the Biomedical Industry
  • Industry 5: Physics Modelling in the Financial Industry
Prerequisite: PH3101 & PH3102
PH4501 - Statistical Mechanics II  4 AU

This course introduces the theoretical framework of statistical mechanics and applications to novel physical systems.

  1. Principle of equal equilibrium probability; Boltzmann and Gibbs entropy; configurational entropy and defects
  2. Microcanonical, canonical and grand canonical ensembles; harmonic oscillator and paramagnetic salt; negative temperature
    * Fluctuations in energy, particle number and volume; critical opalescence
  3. Classical and quantum systems - indistinguishability; equipartition theorem; grand partition function, Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics; quantum to classical crossover; chemical equilibrium and Langmuir isotherm
  4. Ideal Bose gas and Bose-Einstein condensation; quantum liquids; black-body radiation; phonons and Debye model; ideal Fermi gas; normal modes and elementary excitations
  5. Classical liquids - radial distribution function, internal energy and equation of state; virial expansion

Prerequisite: PH3101 and PH3201

PH4502 - Atmospheric Physics  4 AU

This course introduces the atmosphere as a fluid system and discusses the physics that underlie weather and climate.

  1. Basic properties of the atmosphere; temperature structure, potential temperature, and entropy; hydrostatic balance and geopotential; pressure coordinates
  2. Radiative balance of the Earth; radiative transfer; ozone-layer; greenhouse effect
  3. Fluid dynamics on a rotating planet; geostrophic flow; cyclones & anticyclones; thermal-wind balance
  4. Conservation of angular momentum, Hadley circulation; global wind circulation
  5. Static stability and Brunt-Vassala frequency; gravity waves; Rossby waves
  6. Thermal convection; adiabatic lapse rate; moist adiabat; radiative-convective equilibrium
  7. Antarctic ozone hole; global warming and climate change

Prerequisite: PH2103 and PH3501

PH4505 - Computational Physics  4 AU
  1. Numerical solutions of differential equations in classical mechanics, quantum mechanics and electromagnetism.
  2. Monte Carlo method for statistical mechanics simulation. Optimization and data analysis.
  3. Optimization and data analysis.
  4. Various advanced topics including Quantum Monte Carlo and Density Functional Theory.


Prerequisite: PH3101

PH4506 - Electrodynamics 4 AU

This course introduces electrodynamics at a more advanced level.

  1. Electromagnetism in the framework of special relativity.
  2. Electromagnetic radiation from a moving point charge as well as a system of moving charges.
  3. Electromagnetic scattering.

Prerequisite: PH2102

PH4507 - Topics in Physics 3 AU

This course introduces students to topics in Physics which are at the frontier of theoretical physics. Students will be informed of the topic selected before the start of the semester.

  1. Topics are chosen from various areas of theoretical physics, such as general relativity, quantum field theory, elementary particle physics, quantum chromodynamics, astrophysics, cosmology, string theory, condensed matter physics etc.

Prerequisite: Division Approval

PH4508 - Introduction to General Relativity 3 AU

Beginning with a review of special relativity, the course covers the equivalence principle, effects of gravitation on clocks and the GPS, gravitational redshift, curved spacetime, geodesic equation and simple solutions, Schwarzschild geometry of a spherical star, equation of orbits around spherical star, experimental tests of general relativity, and the course ends with an introduction to black holes. It adopts a physics first approach and introduces the higher mathematics when needed.

Prerequisite: MH2801 & PH2102 & PH2104

PH4509 - Quantum Field Theory with applications in Condensed Matter Physics 4 AU

This is a first course in quantum field theory (QFT) where we provide an exposition of basic concepts, mathematical techniques and a sketch of various applications in particle theory and many-body problems in condensed matter physics. The foundational topics which will be introduced include path-integral formalism in quantum mechanics and QFT, canonical quantization, Green’s functions and Feynman diagrams in perturbation theory. We will touch on the application of these concepts to aspects of quantum electrodynamics as well as selected modern topics in condensed matter physics for which QFT is a useful framework, such as the fractional quantum hall effect, mean-field theory of superfluids, renormalization group and Landau-Ginzburg theory of critical phenomena.

Prerequisite: PH3101

PH4601 - Physics of Semiconductor and Spintronics Devices  4 AU

This course aims to introduce solid state devices that signify modern technologies and microelectronics industries. These technologies are generally drawn from the physics of semiconductor and magnetism.

  1. Semiconductor: Electronic band structures of semiconductors, electronic properties of defects, charge carrier concentrations, drift of carriers in electric and magnetic fields, diffusion and recombination of excess carriers, p-n junction physics, junction diodes, tunnel diodes, bipolar junction transistors, metal-semiconductor contacts, metal-insulator-semiconductor interfaces, MOSFET and advanced FinFET.
  2. Magnetism: fundamental magnetism, ferromagnetism, magnetisation reversal process, domain wall, soft and hard magnetic materials, giant magnetoresistance, tunnelling magnetoresistance, magnetic random access memory (MRAM), magnetic media, magnetic recording head.

Prerequisite: PH3102

PH4603 - Soft Condensed Matter Physics  3 AU

This course provides an introduction to soft-condensed.

  1. Atomic and molecular forces, hard-core repulsion
  2. Polymers, correlations in the fluctuations of solvent molecules
  3. Diffusion in fluids, electrostatics in solution; Poisson-Boltzmann theory; Electrophoresis; liquid interfaces and droplets
  4. Lipid bilayers and vesicles; membrane fluctuations, cell mechanics; colloids
  5. Liquid crystal phases, random aggregation and fractals;
  6. Viscoelasticity
  7. Experimental methods - dynamic light scattering, self-assembling process, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, measuring interactions with laser tweezers and tracking experiments

Prerequisite: PH2103

PH4604 - Topics in Applied Physics  3 AU

This course introduces students to topics in Physics which are at the frontier of applied physics. Students will be informed of the topic selected before the start of the semester.

  1. Topics are chosen from various areas of applied physics, such as advanced material physics, spintronics, physics of organic devices, nanophysics, superconductivity and its application etc.

Prerequisite: Division Approval

PH4605 - Medical Physics for Radiotherapy  4 AU

This course will introduce the fundamental and clinical aspects of radiation physics, dosimetry concepts and techniques, dose calculation methods and treatment planning, radiobiology and radiation safety for Radiotherapy.

Prerequisite: PH3101

PH4606 - Fundamentals and Applications of Acoustics

 3 AU

The course introduces the fundamentals physical principles of acoustics and focuses on hearing and ultrasonic sound propagation in fluids; plane wave and sonar equations, sound speed dependencies and propagation modelling will be discussed.

Different types of acoustic systems and the role of acoustic systems in underwater environments will be considered. As ultrasound is widely used in medical applications this course will focus on medical ultrasonic applications for diagnosis and for treatments purpose.

This course is portioned into fundamental acoustics, wave equations, sound propagation and sound modelling. The specific arrangement is:

  1. Introduction to physical acoustics, wave equations, reflection, equivalent network, piston and Rayleigh integral.
  2. Solutions to wave equations, sound speed profiles, 2D parabolic wave equation, underwater acoustic modelling, and sound propagation in the ocean.
  3. Sonar wave equation, reflections, scattering and backscattering. Introduction to sonar systems and application in target detection and ranging.
  4. Bioacoustics:
    • Sound generation and sound perception in human beings: from vocal cords to frequency resolution of the cochlea.
    • Application of sound propagation, transmission losses, sound exposure levels and impact on the marine environment.
  5. Medical Ultrasound: introduction to diagnostic ultrasound, sound emission from bubbles, and therapeutical ultrasound.
Prerequisite: PH1104, PH1105, MH2801 or permission

PH4607/ CM4017 - Biomedical Imaging and Sensing

 3 AU

This course will give an overview of the cutting edge medical imaging and bio-sensing techniques currently being developed, by giving special emphasis on the physics fundamentals for various system designs.

This course will be divided into two parts. First part will cover the concepts behind photonics based biosensors and its real applications. In the second part, state of the art medical imaging techniques will be covered by introducing its basics followed by instrumentation and its real applications for disease diagnosis and drug discovery. Finally a comparative analysis of these techniques will be discussed.

Prerequisite: PH2301 (for PHY) OR CM3041 (for CHEM)

PH4608 - Plasmonics and Metamaterials

 3 AU

The course would mainly consist of the following topics:
1. Fundamentals of Surface Plasmon Polaritons
2. Dispersion relation and coupling mechanisms
3. Fundamentals of metamaterials: The material that exists beyond the nature.
4. Active Metamaterials
5. Bright and dark mode resonances in metamaterials
6. Near field coupling phenomena: Slow light in metamaterials
7. Superconductor metamaterials
8. Fano resonant high quality factor metamaterials
9. Toroidal dipole: A new class of exotic excitations in metamaterials
10. Microelctromechanical Systems (MEMS) for Active Metamaterials

Prerequisite: PH2102
PH4405 - Final Year Project(only for students admitted in 2015 and before) 10 AU

The student will undertake a project over two semesters, supervised by a faculty member. He/she will be required to produce a thesis report and prepare for seminar presentations. Assessment will be through a thesis report, viva and seminar presentation.

Prerequisite: 12 AUs of PH3XXXX courses

Not available to: Students (admitted in AY06/07 and later) who have taken/are taking PAP493 OR PH4407 OR PH4413

PH4406 - Industrial Internship I (only for students admitted in 2014 and before) 4 AU

10 weeks of industrial placement in an approved company or institution

Prerequisite: PH1104, PH1105, PH1106, PH1107, PH1198, PH1199, PH2101, PH2102, PH2103, PH2104, PH2198, PH2199 or by permission

Not available to: Students who have taken/are taking PAP493 OR PH4407 OR PH4412 OR PH4413

PH4407- Industrial Internship II (only for students admitted in 2014 and before) 10 AU

22 weeks of industrial placement in an approved company or institution

Prerequisite: PH1104, PH1105, PH1106, PH1107, PH1198, PH1199, PH2101, PH2102, PH2103, PH2104, PH2198, PH2199, PH3101, PH3102 or by permission

Not available to: Students who have taken/are taking PAP492/ PH4406 OR PH4412 OR PH4413 and
students (admitted in AY06/07 and later) who have taken/are taking PAP491 OR PH4405.

PH4412 -Professional Attachment (only for students admitted in 2015) 4 AU

10 weeks of industrial placement in an approved company or institution

Prerequisite: PH1104, PH1105, PH1106, PH1107, PH1198, PH1199, PH2101, PH2102, PH2103, PH2104, PH2198, PH2199 or by permission

Mutually exclusive: PAP492, PAP493, PH4406, PH4407, PH4413, PH4416, PH4417
Note: This is a Pass/Fail Course

PH4413 - Professional Internship (only for students admitted in 2015) 10 AU

22 weeks of industrial placement in an approved company or institution

Prerequisite: PH1104, PH1105, PH1106, PH1107, PH1198, PH1199, PH2101, PH2102, PH2103, PH2104, PH2198, PH2199, PH3101, PH3102 or by permission

Mutually exclusive: PAP492, PAP493, PH4405, PH4406, PH4407, PH4412, PH4415, PH4416, PH4417
Note: This is a Pass/Fail Course

PH4415 - Final Year Project (only for students admitted in 2016 and after) 11 AU

The student will undertake a project over two semesters, supervised by a faculty member. He/she will be required to produce a thesis report and prepare for seminar presentations. Assessment will be through a thesis report, viva and seminar presentation.


Prerequisite: Prerequisite: 12 AUs of PH3XXXX courses

Mutually exclusive: PAP491, PH4405, PH4407, PH4413, PH4417

PH4416 -Professional Attachment (only for students admitted in 2016 and after)) 5 AU

10 weeks of industrial placement in an approved company or institution

Prerequisite: PH1104, PH1105, PH1106, PH1107, PH1198, PH1199, PH2101, PH2102, PH2103, PH2104, PH2198, PH2199 or by permission

Mutually exclusive: PAP492, PAP493, PH4406, PH4407, PH4412, PH4413, PH4417
Note: This is a Pass/Fail Course

PH4417 - Professional Internship (only for students admitted in 2016 and after) 11 AU

22 weeks of industrial placement in an approved company or institution

Prerequisite: PH1104, PH1105, PH1106, PH1107, PH1198, PH1199, PH2101, PH2102, PH2103, PH2104, PH2198, PH2199, PH3101, PH3102 or by permission

Mutually exclusive: PAP492, PAP493, PH4405, PH4406, PH4407, PH4412, PH4413, PH4415, PH4416
Note: This is a Pass/Fail Course

 

Physics courses for Non-Major Students
course Information AU Information
PH1011 - Physics  3 AU

1. VECTORS
2. KINEMATICS
3. FORCES AND TORQUES
4. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION
5. IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM
6. WORK AND ENERGY
7. THERMAL PHYSICS
8. ELECTRIC FIELD
9. MAGNETIC FIELD
10. MOTION OF CHARGED PARTICLES AND APPLICATIONS
11. CIRCUITS

Prerequisite: Physics at A or H2 level, or equivalents

Not available to: Students who have taken/are taking CY1305, CY1306, FE1001, FE1011, IM1091, MS1001, PH1012, PH1104, PH1106, PH114S, PH116S

PH1012 - Physics A  4 AU

1. VECTORS
2. KINEMATICS
3. FORCES AND TORQUES
4. NEWTON’S LAWS OF MOTION
5. IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM
6. WORK AND ENERGY
7. THERMAL PHYSICS
8. ELECTRIC FIELD
9. MAGNETIC FIELD
10. MOTION OF CHARGED PARTICLES AND APPLICATIONS
11. CIRCUITS

Prerequisite: For students w/o A level Physics (applicable to F/T students)

Not available to: Students who have taken/are taking CY1305, CY1306, FE1001, FE1011, FE1012, IM1090, PH1011, PH1101, PH1104, PH1106, PH114S, PH116S, AERO(2004-2011), CEE(2004-2011), ENE(2004-2011)

PH1801 - Foundations of Physics I  3 AU

Fundamentals of physics covering (a) mechanics, (b) wave motion, and (c) thermodynamics, with examples of practical applications to biomedical sciences, engineering sciences and other fields. Students learn about the principles of the physical world from which scientific and engineering applications are built upon. At a general level, students learn how to read scientific material effectively, identify fundamental concepts, reason through scientific questions, and solve quantitative problems.

Prerequisite: Mathematics at A or H2 level, or equivalents

Not available to: Students who have taken/are taking PAP111 OR PH1101 OR PH1104

Note: For CBC students, the requirement of PH1801 may be replaced with PH1101 or PH1104.

Note: This is a Pass/Fail Course

PH1802 - Foundations of Physics II  3 AU

Fundamentals of physics covering (a) electricity and magnetism, (b) optics, and (c) modern physics, with examples of practical applications to biomedical sciences, engineering sciences and other fields. Students learn about the principles of the physical world from which scientific and engineering applications are built upon. At a general level, students learn how to read scientific material effectively, identify fundamental concepts, reason through scientific questions, and solve quantitative problems.

Prerequisite: PH1801

Not available to: Students who have taken/are taking PAP112 OR PH1102 OR PH1106
Note: For CBC students, the requirement of PH1802 may be replaced with PH1102 or PH1106.

Note: This is a Pass/Fail Course

 

GER courses
Course Code and Title AU Information
PH8101 - Environmental Physics  3 AU

This course provides a broad appreciation of the physical factors that govern the environment.

  1. Physics of the atmosphere, wind and oceans, thermodynamics of the weather and solar energy, greenhouse effect and global warming
  2. Modeling of pollution diffusion and dispersion
  3. Remote sensing and detection methods, hydrology, planetary science, and field courses

Prerequisite: Physics at O level

PH8102 - Physics of Sports  3 AU

This course introduces the physical principles that govern human locomotion and sporting incidents.

  1. Human locomotion ¨C running, jumping, swimming. Biomechanics of skating ¨C jumping (projectile motion) and rotating (angular momentum), rink conditions and boot
  2. Soccer ¨C kicking, flight (air flow and resistance, Magnus effect)
  3. Baseball ¨C throwing (spin, curve and air flow), hitting (sweet spots)
  4. Miscellaneous ¨C golf and golf balls, sky diving

Prerequisite: Physics at O level

 

Unrestricted Electives
Course Code and Title AU Information
PH2901 - Electronics for the Experimentalist  3 AU This course introduces basic concepts and applications of electronic elements and circuits which are useful in an experimental research environment. Elements in analog and digital electronics will be discussed. Tools for circuit design and board layout will be introduced. Additionally an overview of typical circuits for scientific instrumentation for data acquisition and signal processing will be given. The lab sessions are an integral part in this course and focused on hands-on experiments with the goal to realize prototypes of given circuits. During the project work an electronic circuit has to be designed and realized able to manage a given task.

Prerequisite: PH1102

PH2999 - Undergraduate Research Experience in Physics I  3 AU

This course introduces research work in physics that is suitable for 2nd year undergraduate students. The content will be determined by project supervisors.

Remark: Subject to approval from the Head of Division

Note: This is a Pass/Fail Course

PH3901 - Thin Film Technology  3 AU

This course focuses on the principles of thin-film deposition techniques as well as the underlying physical principles governing the thin film growth. This course will be supplemented with examples and applications that reflect the frontiers of modern science and technology, e.g. fabrication of semiconductor films/devices, growth of nano-structure films and materials.

  1. Growth techniques - chemical vapour deposition, physical vapour deposition, pulsed laser deposition, and electron beam epitaxy
  2. Basic principles that determine film growth mode and quality - gas kinetics, adsorption, surface diffusion and nucleation
  3. Thin film characterization techniques - x-ray diffraction, SEM, TEM, AFM, etc

Prerequisite: PH2302

PH3999 - Undergraduate Research Experience in Physics II  3 AU

This course introduces research work in physics that is suitable for 3rd year undergraduate students. The content will be determined by project supervisors.

Remark: Subject to approval from the Head of Division
PS9888 - Making and Tinkering  4 AU

We envision creating an environment to allow students to apply their scientific knowledge to identify and solve open-ended real life problems together with their friends from different disciplines. We want to provide our students with the opportunities to freely explore, take risks and even if they fail, the failure will be a fruitful and enriching. In the process, they will create and build something pertaining to solving the problem identified. The end-product of investigation will be a (novel) object designed and created by the students. They are also required to do presentations about their project.

Note: This is a Pass/Fail course and offers during the Special Terms.

 

Other Core Requirements
Course Code and Title AU Information
MH1401 - Algorithms and Computing I  2 AU See respective MAS website for more information (for students admitted in AY1213 or later)
MH1402 - Algorithms and Computing II  2 AU See respective MAS website for more information (for students admitted in AY1213 or later)
MH1800 - Calculus for the Sciences I  3 AU  See respective MAS website for more information (for students admitted in AY1617 or earlier)
MH1801 - Calculus for the Sciences II  3 AU  See respective MAS website for more information (for students admitted in AY1617 or earlier)
MH2800 - Linear Algebra and Multivariable Calculus  4 AU  See respective MAS website for more information (for students admitted in AY1617 or earlier)
MH1802 - Calculus for the Sciences  4 AU  See respective MAS website for more information (for students admitted in AY1718 or later)
MH1803 - Calculus for Physics  4 AU  See respective MAS website for more information (for students admitted in AY1718 or later)
MH2802 - Linear Algebra for Scientists  3 AU  See respective MAS website for more information (for students admitted in AY1718 or later)
MH2801 - Complex Methods for the Sciences  3 AU  See respective MAS website for more information

For GER Core Requirements, please refer to SPMS website for more information.